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Gas, electric and solid fuel boilers

Gas, electric and solid fuel boilers

The efficiency of heating systems depends primarily on the correct choice of the boiler and its capacity (performance, expressed in the amount of heated water) In proportion to the value of this parameter, the number of other components of the system is calculated: each kilowatt of boiler power can heat the air in a room with an area of ten square meters and a height of no more than 3 m If the walls are not sufficiently insulated, the indicator decreases, and for calculating data for double-circuit boilers, the result should be increased by 20-30%


Газовые котлы







The smoke removal process can be performed using an open or closed system In the first case, all unsafe gaseous substances are removed by natural draught, so a high pipe is necessary to provide such draught In gas boilers, instead of a chimney, there is a narrow coaxial pipe that goes beyond the outer wall, into which the combustion products are pumped by a fan


If the boiler heats the house and heats water for household needs, it is called a two-circuit: a running boiler or a boiler with a boiler (a reservoir for heated water) The temperature in these boilers is set at the user's request, and is maintained automatically


A gas boiler that does not have a built-in boiler can work together with a connected one In this case, hot water is constantly supplied, and the heating system can serve several points of intake of heated water


Less often, liquid-fuel heating boilers running on diesel fuel are used The external distinguishing feature of such boilers is the presence of injectors working together with fuel pumps attached to the fuel tank The system used allows you to automate processes and regulate the temperature To operate such an installation, electricity is needed to provide energy to the pumping pump, which ignites when switched on, and ensures the operation of all automation Disadvantages of such boilers: the need to allocate a large area of space for storing fuel, a fairly high price


Электрические котлы

Electric energy in the modern world is the most affordable way to get energy to power household appliances, including boilers for heating systems However, to ensure a sufficient level of heating, especially for large houses and apartments, high — power electric boilers of twenty to thirty kilowatts are required The inclusion of such units in the network for normal, safe operation requires the presence of reinforced wiring It is worth paying attention to the fact that most of these boilers are made taking into account the three-phase voltage of the electrical network, which has an indicator of 380 V, not 220 V In addition, for laying such wiring and installing a powerful boiler, permission from the power supply organization is required








If there is a permit from the company that supplies electricity, and the heated room uses a three-phase network, you can invite a master to install an electric boiler for the organization of the heating system The use of such boilers has a lot of advantages Among them: the minimum noise level or its complete absence during operation of the electric unit; no need for arrangement of the chimney (in such boilers there are no fuel combustion products); increased (in comparison with gas boilers) level of safety during operation of heating equipment The disadvantages of using electric boilers include the following factors: not the most affordable price for the boiler and the electricity supplied, a large consumption of e / energy when heating, the risk of power outages, as a result of which you can stay in a cold house in winter without an alternative additional source of energy (for example, a gas generator)

Special requirements are imposed on the quality of water passing through the heating elements of the boiler The chemical composition of the heat carrier, which is water, is very important for ensuring the long-term useful use of electric boilers If the water contains a lot of salts, the surface of the heating elements (heating elements) will quickly accumulate scale, and the metal from which they are made will be subject to corrosion







Tubular heating elements or heating Elements are the main component of an electric heating system Only high-quality heating elements must be installed in electric heating boilers Otherwise, if they break down in the winter, their prompt replacement can become a real problem

Solid fuel boilers

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Solid fuel boilers are used in areas where there are no gas pipelines, but there are no problems with such fuel material as firewood or coal Unlike other types of boilers, solid fuel boilers show reduced efficiency and pollute the atmosphere with emissions Another inconvenience is the need to allocate space in the room for storing fuel supplies





Solid fuel boilers produced for modern farms can work for a whole day on just one load (portion) of firewood due to the presence of mechanisms that automatically regulate the combustion process Gorenje Convenient solid fuel boilers do not need to be connected to the network, and they are able to maintain the desired temperature level as well as electric ones


Pyrolysis boilers — a new word in the heating business Their device does not involve a simple Gorenje process, but decomposition of the loaded fuel into coke and combustible gas The latter passes through the nozzle of the burner, mixing there with the air pumped by a special fan The efficiency of this type of heating is achieved by burning not only the solid fuel itself, but also the gas extracted from it Pyrolysis boilers have a high level of efficiency index (efficiency), reaching up to 85% Work on a single load of fuel can be carried out for ten hours, while a minimum of soot and ash is formed (provided that the fuel is dry) Disadvantages: pyrolysis boilers, unlike the previous ones, require permanent electricity and cost a lot

To make a good choice from all the variety of solid fuel boilers, you need to make sure that you always have access to the necessary fuel, and then choose the desired configuration and size An important point when choosing a pyrolysis boiler is sufficient dryness of fuel (firewood): if it is not possible to purchase or independently prepare dry firewood, such a boiler will not be able to function normally In this case it is better to choose a pellet boiler When this solid fuel boiler is loaded into a large hopper, it can ensure uninterrupted operation of the unit for several days or weeks


Pellets, dry, loose wood pellets, less than a centimeter in size (length-5-7 mm, diameter-6-8 mm), are the fuel for the boiler of the same name These hollow pellets are very convenient for automatic loading into the combustion chamber: you can adjust the heating temperature of the coolant by the boiler


Automatic operation of solid fuel boilers is not always supported, since any model of the unit requires periodic cleaning of the furnace and refueling of solid fuel In case of additional re-equipment of the heating system by means of completing with heat accumulators These devices must be properly integrated into the overall heating system Thermal batteries usually look like tanks insulated with heat-resistant materials to reduce heat loss The capacity of such a tank is from two to ten cubic meters, and the heating temperature is about eighty or ninety-five degrees Celsius


Only when the circulation pump is turned on will the heating system described work The pump is a cast-iron housing with an electric motor placed inside, rotating the impeller Thanks to this scheme of operation, water is forcefully pushed in the right direction, overcoming the resistance of the components of the heating system


Absolutely all circulation pumps operate using the "wet rotor" principle with a vertical shaft arrangement This means that the rotor turns in the liquid medium that it heats — in water When this mechanism is running it is simultaneously lubricated and cooled These pumps make almost no noise and rarely require maintenance


When choosing the right pump, you should proceed from the value of the pipeline passage, which must be compared with the marking on the pump packaging: the first number indicates the width of the pipe in millimeters, and the second-the pressure expressed in the height of the water column or in the number of atmospheres For example, the expression "25-40" means that the conditional passage of the pipe for which the pump can be attached is twenty-five millimeters, and the pressure created by such a pump is equal to forty meters of water column or four-tenths of the atmosphere To make" meters "into " atmospheres", you need to divide the number of meters by 100; to perform the reverse operation, multiply the amount denoting the number of atmospheres by one hundred

If the heating system serves an ordinary apartment or small house, a pump with a capacity of four to nine meters of water column is enough It is installed on the return pipeline that leads to the heating boiler Thus, a properly selected circulation pump pumps water into the boiler until it is filled, without letting air in, which would interfere with the operation of the unit or stop it altogether The advantage of this option of arrangement of the heating system is the ability of the circulation pump to work effectively even in conditions of low temperatures, while increasing the service life