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Heating device

Heating devices are a key element of any heating system, which is assigned the task of heating premises The better heat transfer the batteries have, the more efficiently the entire system works, so the calculation and selection of radiators should be approached with special care Today, the market has an extensive range of heating elements of various types, made of different materials










Aluminum radiators are the most widely used , and steel, cast iron and bimetallic radiators are also popular Each of these materials has certain advantages and disadvantages, so the specifics of their use are determined by the operating conditions and characteristics of a particular heating system

One of the best materials in this field is aluminum-an inexpensive metal that is significantly (4-5 times) superior to steel and cast iron in its thermal conductivity, as well as in its ability to give heat to the air However it can only be used in individual heating systems with a high quality heat carrier Untreated water from the Central heating system quickly causes aluminum batteries to become unusable

When connecting to a city heating system it is better to use steel or cast iron batteries They are insensitive to chemically active impurities of industrial water and well tolerate pressure surges during crimping, which often destroys aluminum batteries A good alternative is also modern bimetallic radiators, which are gaining popularity despite the relatively high price

Characteristics and types of heating elements

Since the task of any heating element is to heat the room in which it is installed, the key characteristic is the effective power of this device It is measured in kilowatts and specified by the manufacturer in the passport of each instance It also sets the conditions (the temperature of the heat carrier and the air in the room) under which the battery gives off the specified amount of energy

The heat output of any heating device depends on its design At the same time, there are only two mechanisms for transferring heat to the surrounding space: convection and infrared radiation Convection heating consists of direct heating of the air from the surface of the heating battery By contacting the metal, the air heats up and moves up along the radiator fins, making room for cooler air Thus, the entire volume of the room is gradually warmed up


In order for a heating device to be called a radiator, it must give off at least 25% of its thermal power through surface radiation However this term today is called almost any heating device In particular, modern radiators made of aluminum with a large number of fins give off most of the heat with convection air flows, but no one calls them convectors

Installing and connecting radiators

The efficiency of the heating element depends significantly on the installation location If the heat output of a radiator installed openly against the wall is taken as 100%, then being installed under a wide window sill, the same radiator will give out only 70% of this power The efficiency of the heating battery depends on the installation location, the presence of a niche, window sill, decorative panel or box, which can become significant obstacles to both radiation and convection

The connection method, as well as the correct ratio of characteristics with other devices in the heating circuit, can also affect the power of the radiator So large radiators with a high declared heat transfer will be useless if the boiler capacity is insufficient, or the circulation pump pumps too small a volume of coolant per unit of time


The choice of radiators for power

It is quite easy to calculate the required capacity of the heating system, knowing the climatic conditions of the selected region, the area and some other characteristics of the heated room On the basis of the obtained values is determined by the capacity of the boiler, the circulation pump and the total capacity of the radiators

There are special calculators that allow you to make accurate calculations taking into account the climate, location, ceiling height, building perimeter, window size, and other factors But to simplify calculations we can proceed from the ratio of 0.1 kW per square meter This power with a certain margin is enough for a modern insulated house with a ceiling height of about 3 meters


Advantages and disadvantages of different materials

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Cast iron radiators have become the most familiar and traditional in our everyday life Due to their massiveness, as well as a large internal volume, they retain a significant amount of heat, which is effectively given to the room by radiation In addition, they are characterized by low hydraulic resistance, which is important for both Soviet buildings and modern multi-storey buildings



In terms of reliability and durability only some steel panels can compare with cast iron radiators Cast iron has good resistance to chemical activity of industrial water, without the effects of transfers pressure surges in the pressure test That is why this material is still relevant and preferable for installation in modern new buildings And due to the minimum hydraulic resistance radiators of this type are best suited for systems with natural circulation of the coolant


Aluminum radiators among all heating devices have the best heat transfer Aluminum itself has a very high thermal conductivity (4-5 times higher than that of steel and cast iron), so that all the fins of the radiator are well warmed up and effectively give heat to the surrounding air The microstructure of the aluminum surface also contributes to high heat transfer (both by convection and infrared radiation)


Good consumer characteristics have made aluminum batteries the most popular for installation in private homes, because only in this case there is confidence in the quality of the heat carrier However, aluminum is very sensitive to salts and other chemical impurities that can be dissolved in industrial water, so this type of radiator is not suitable for use in a centralized heating system But for individual heating systems this is the best material




When choosing aluminum radiators, keep in mind that they may have different gradations of quality Devices made of primary aluminum are much more reliable and durable, but their price is slightly higher Secondary aluminum obtained after processing is somewhat cheaper, but products made from it are not as strong and durable


Completely solve the problem of poor chemical resistance of aluminum allow bimetallic radiators, the inner part of which is made of stainless steel The steel core is pressed into an aluminum radiator, which makes it possible to combine the advantages of steel and aluminum in one heating device


The level of heat transfer of bimetallic batteries is comparable to aluminum counterparts At the same time, they are characterized by durability, high corrosion resistance and resistance to pressure surges in the system Their only drawback is their relatively high price




Steel is a good budget option Steel panel radiators are compact heating devices with an attractive design and good consumer characteristics On the front panel, you can apply a beautiful drawing or airbrush, which will significantly improve the aesthetic properties and will not affect the thermal efficiency


Stainless steel, which is used for panel radiators, is highly durable and durable, so that the steel radiator can withstand significant pressure surges and is perfect for connecting to a centralized heating system






One of the main advantages of convectors over radiators – undemanding to the temperature of the coolant So the steel panel radiator for effective operation requires that the coolant is heated to temperatures of about 100 °C, the convector is effective at much lower temperatures

Convection heaters usually have a low height and are placed above the floor surface or even inside it Usually, the convector has a large number of ribs, tightly put on the pipes with the heat carrier There are practically no radiating surfaces, but the surface in contact with air is several square meters for each individual element When the air is heated, it rises up, providing continuous heat transfer to the room

Floor mounted water convectors are compact and efficient Models equipped with a fan, with a very compact size, can cope with heating large enough rooms Visually, floor-mounted convection heaters are well combined with high panoramic Windows and glazed terraces, and due to their compact size can become a successful element of any modern interior

In a special group, you can select built-in convectors that are installed inside the floor This is a modern high-tech solution that allows you to provide effective heating in rooms where for some reason it is impossible to install conventional radiators or convectors These designs are designed individually and allow you to redirect the air flow to effectively circulate warm air and create air curtains in front of large glazed surfaces