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Heating system


The heat carrier is hot water or antifreeze Through the pipeline system, the heat carrier is supplied to radiators or batteries that perform a heating function As a result, heated radiators and batteries warm up the air in the room and thus, the air temperature rises


When cooling down, the coolant returns to the boiler, where it warms up again and repeats its path to the radiators Thus, the heating cycle is presented in the simplest form In a well-designed heating system, the coolant goes a long way before getting into the radiator and back into the boiler


In modern systems the heat carrier comes from large industrial type boilers If we talk about private houses and cottages, the heat carrier is heated in the boiler By converting electricity or fuel (firewood, gas, coal, etc)









An efficient heating system can spend a minimum of energy and still remain as reliable and efficient as possible In order for the system to work efficiently, reliably and smoothly, it is necessary to make a competent wiring, choose the right equipment and perform a high-quality complex of installation works The main thing in this scheme is a well-designed project, which largely depends on the success of the work With the project it is much easier to create a heating system

Wiring diagrams-considering possible options


Depending on the heating system chosen by the consumer, the pipe layout will depend There are two types in total:

  • Wiring with natural circulation (open type);
  • Forced circulation (closed type)

In this case, the heating devices will be connected according to a well-developed scheme In total, there are several types of wiring – one-pipe and two-pipe, as well as vertical and horizontal

Single-pipe system with natural coolant circulation


Natural circulation of the heat carrier inside the heating system is carried out due to the difference in the mass of hot water in the supply pipe and cold water in the return pipeline To compensate for thermal expansion and loss of coolant, the system uses an expansion tank installed at the highest point of the entire system


The tank acts as a tank for refueling the coolant and regularly feeding the system with the coolant In this scheme, the excess pressure is completely absent and is equated to atmospheric pressure This is an open type heating system The simplest option is the single – tube type










Heating system with two pipes with natural circulation


In a two-pipe heating system with natural circulation, the pipes run parallel, which allows you to evenly heat the entire house To achieve normal operation of the entire system, it is necessary that the pressure is at the optimal level to overcome possible resistance To ensure this parameter, specialists choose larger diameter pipes and create a simple layout with a minimum number of nodes


 Note that it is very difficult to regulate the temperature in systems with natural coolant circulation Also, it is almost impossible to apply modern technological innovations in such a system Simplicity and energy independence are the main advantages of this type of system


Heating system with one pipe and forced circulation


In systems with forced circulation of the heat carrier, the" circulation " of the liquid is carried out by means of a circulation pump Thanks to this device, you can heat a lot more rooms In this system, there is an expansion tank of the balloon type, inside which there is compressed air, which is fixed there by a membrane



In systems of this type the coolant is under regular pressure and does not contact the air masses During the working process, the temperature and pressure are constantly falling and rising That is why this type of system is equipped with safety devices Here are the air vents, discharge valves and pressure gauge



Single-tube systems with manifolds and circulation pump


This system is ideal for 2 or more storey buildings – despite the increased consumption of pipes and many connections, it has a huge number of advantages This system will help to heat any building, regardless of its architecture Here you can make wiring from pipes of any diameter, which can be hidden under the floor or hidden in a monolith The only disadvantage of such systems is increased power consumption


Two-pipe system with collectors and forced circulation system


This option, in terms of design, is considered the most popular and effective All thanks to the fact that you can independently adjust the temperature regime here Each radiator is connected to the system separately – for this purpose, metal-plastic pipes are used

An Autonomous closed system is attractive for the following reasons:

  • The expansion tank can be installed next to the boiler, rather than at the highest point;
  • In systems of this type, the coolant does not contact the air, which prevents all sorts of processes and chemical reactions that negatively affect the condition of the pipeline (rust, oxidation, etcp);
  • The drain valve will help you quickly get rid of air jams and overpressure without the intervention of the system owner




Boilers, or heat generators, play a key role in the entire system Boilers, as well as systems, are of two types – single-circuit and double-circuit


The difference between them is as follows:

  • Single-circuit boilers can work either in the heating system, or provide the building with hot water;


  • Two-circuit structures perform both of these functions



The choice of boiler depends largely on the type of fuel used If you bet on liquid fuel or gas boilers, you will get a model that is fully automated and requires only seasonal prevention Solid fuel models will have to constantly load fuel and constantly clean the chimney


Electric models are the most affordable and popular option on the market The only drawback is that you will need to conduct special wiring for such a boiler, as well as get permission to install it from utilities Please note that electricity costs will increase significantly


Boiler capacity-the main parameter of aggregates, on the basis of which other nodes and connections are selected, determines the diameter of pipes